Friday, 23 March 2012

Hafnium, Danium, Celtium

What's in a name - Hafnium, Danium, and Celtium were all at some point names for atomic number 72.

Niels Bohr had developed a theory of atomic structure and did not believe the 1911 claim from George Urbain that Celtium was element 72 nor was Celtium a rare earth metal. Bohr hired Dirk Coster and and George de Hevesy who were trained in X-ray spectroscopy. These two were to look for an element in Zircon.

On Saturday, December 8, 1922, Coster and Hevesy determined that their x-ray analysis was without fault showing a unique element in their Zircon sample. They rushed the news to Bohr who was about to give a Nobel Prize speech in Stockholm after being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

"Ladies and Gentlemen. Today, as a consequence of the great honour the Swedish Academy of Sciences has done me in awarding me this year’s Nobel Prize for Physics for my work on the structure of the atom, it is my duty to give an account of the results of this work..."

At the end of his Nobel Prize address, Bohr made a public announcement of the findings of Coster and Hevesy. The discovery that would alter the Periodic Table of Elements at space 72 was published in 1923.

The controversy between Georges Urbain's Celtium and the atomic scientists was slowly put to rest.

Bohr thought Danium was a proper name for element 72 and his choice was accepted initiallly. Hevesy agreed with Bohr on the name but had been accustomed to calling his research a task of isolating hafnium which is how Coster wanted the potential discovery to be named. Hevesy had even prepared a publication on the topic of his discovery with Hafnium naming the newly discovered element. He rushed to change Hafnium to Danium but missed the printer's deadline. The release of the publication confused the readers and those interested in the periodic table and atomic science. Was this new element Celtium, Danium, or Hafnium?

After long debates Hafnium replaced both Danium and Celtium as the name of choice for atomic number 72. 

Hafnium is a derivative of the word Hafnia which is a Latin word for Copenhagen. Urbain's Celtium name reflects the Celt origins. Celt comes from Keltoi and from way back when Herodotus used this term to describe the people to the North of the Alps. Urbain was from France. Bohr meanwhile was from Copenhagen, Denmark, De Hevesy was born in Hungary. Coster was a Dutchman.  Danium is a more liberal name in that it encompasses all of Denmark but the final choice for 72 Hf remains and will always be Hafnium.


Resource - A Philatelic Ramble through Chemistry -

Georges Urbain

Who is Georges Urbain ?

How does Georges Urbain fit in with the number 72 ?

He was born in 1872 in Paris and became a top notch chemist and a Professor. Urbain had a passion for the arts and loved to paint, sculpt, and play music.

As a professional chemist he understood the existing atomic elements of the periodic table introduced by Mendeleev back in the 1800's. Georges Urbain and Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach are credited with co-discovering the element lutelium. Charles James is also associated to the isolation of this rare earth element.

Lutelium is a pure metal and belongs in space 71 of the periodic table of elements. It is also 71Lu.

Georges Urbain was the one who seperated lutetium from ytterbia ( yttterbium oxide ) in 1907.

Georges Urbain thought he had found element 72 also in 1907 and reported it to the scientific community as a rare earth metal. In his report in 2011 he called atomic number 72 Celtium. The scientific community tested out his claim and found that the spectra and chemical behaviour the Celtium did not match the true characteristics of an element that should fill in the 72 space. Hafnium discovered in 1923 fit that character. The scientists of this era were shifting from old school mineral analysis models to state of the art instruments like those used by Moseley when he was using X-ray spectroscopy to measure wavelengths. Not all scientists of this era trusted the new technology and the controversy over Celtium being element 72 dragged on for several years.

Georges Urbain taught thermodynamics at Sorbonne University in Paris.

One hundred and twenty years ago Georges Urbain was born, in Paris, on 12th
April. He was educated in Paris and graduated, as top student, in 1894. He obtained a DSc
iri 1898 with a thesis on the RE elements and from the same year to 1904 worked in
industry. He then followed his true vocation as a teacher, finally becoming professor of
chemistry at the Sorbonne, in 1908. His main research interests were in the field of RE
chemistry and he is best known for his discovery of lutecium and for his unsuccessful
attempts at isolating another RE metal which he hoped to call celtium. It was during these
researches that, in 1912 (three years before Honda’s landmark publication on
thermogravimetry) he converted an analytical balance into a thermobalance in order to
study materials which decomposed at a perceptible rate, with the evolution of a gas. He
established a law governing the efflorescence of hydrates in a dry atmosphere, carried out a few experiments on EGA but soon lost interest in thermogravimetry. - tmg newsletter


Bohr and others who play a role in the isolation of element 72.

Resource - Hafnium

Thursday, 22 March 2012

Moseley predicts atomic number 72

This - Moseley predicts atomic number 72 - might be more interestesting if it were about James Moseley, the son of US Army Major General George van Horne Moseley, who was a ufologist and co-founder of Saucer News. However it isn't about that Moseley.

Henry Moseley predicts atonic number 72
Moseley Predicts Atomic Number 72 is about the physicist Henry Moseley who lived but 27 years between 1887 and 1915. Henry Gwyn Jeffrys Moseley was born in the United Kingdom. Henry Moseley gets his education through the Oxford system and graduates in 1910. From Oxford he goes to University of Manchester where he does graduate research under the wings of Sir Ernest Rutherford who is today recognized as the father of nuclear physics.

Henry Moseley measured chemical elements through X-Ray spectroscopy. Through his understanding of Bragg's difraction law and the pioneering technology of x-ray spectroscopy he discovers a pattern between wavelengths of X-rays and the atomic number of metals Moseley's law is the result of this discovery.

Back in the 1800's the Russian Mendeleev had invented the periodic table of elements and had predicted that certain elements would eventually be found and added to his chart. Moseley reworked the placement of a few existing elements on the Mendeleev chart. He also suggested that there were gaps or spaces in the periodic table that should identify yet unknown elements at 43, 61, 72 and 75. All of these spaces are now filled with  the discoveries of technetium, promethium, hafnium, and rhenium.

Hafnium was periodic table element 72 or 72HF and discovered in 1923.

While Mendeleev had lived to an average age of 72 years, Moseley unfortunately found his death while engaged in a war conflict in Turkey. He had discontinued his physics research and joined up with the Royal Engineers of the British Army. World War I had begun and he was an acting technical officer in communications. During the Battle of Galipoli, Henry Moseley was sending out a military order over the telephone when a sniper bullet planted itself in his head and wounded him fatally.

Moseley predicted atomic number 72 and most people agree that had he lived a longer life he would have won the Nobel Prize and many other awards. In his legacy the British Government enacted a policy of  never recruiting into action their prodigy subjects.
Mendeleev predicts the existence of an element that is heavier than titanium and zirconium.

Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the discovery of atomic number 72. Ironically enough he dies at the age of 72 several years before Hafnium is discovered and added to the periodic table of elements as 72HF.

Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev was born in Siberia in 1834. His widowed mother ran a glass factory and the young Dmitri hung out with the factory chemist.

Mendeleev's philosophy of life as a youth can likely be summed up by this Mendeleev quote.

" We could live at the present day without a Plato, but a double number of Newton's is required to discover the secrets of nature, and to bring life into harmony with the laws of nature. "

He moves to Moscow with his mother Maria some time after the glass factory burns to the ground.  When he failed to enter the University in Moscow he moved on the St. Petersburg where he began to study to become a science teacher. Maria died shortly thereafter and Dmitri develops a serious illness that keeps him bedridden for a year or so. But he keeps to his studies from home and graduates first in his class. His masters thesis was called " Research and Theories of Substances due to the Heat. ".

He teaches science for a few years and pursues his studies of the periodic table and chemical technology. Another passion of his is the workings of  Russia's industries. In 1859 he is contracted by the Minister of Public Instruction to go on a sabbattical journey abroad and to return with greater knowledge of how others are doing in the fields of science and technology. In Paris, Mendeleev studies gases with Renault. In Germany he studies spectroscopy with Kirchoff.

Back in St. Petersburg he becomes Professor of Chemistry at the Technological Institute and later he held the same title at the University. He earns a Doctorate degree after writing " On the Combinations of Water and Alcohol ". All the while Dr. Dmitri Mendeleev is contemplating the merits of the periodic charts.

His scientist and educator life was full of scholarly accomplishments yet is family life seemed to suffer a bit from his passions.

In 1869 he was ready to present his observations and descriptions of 60 elements to the Russian Chemical Society. The paper he'd prepared for this day was called " The Dependence between the Properties of the Atomic Weights and the Atomic Elements.". It was in this paper that he expressed, " We must expect the discovery of many yet unknown elements - for example - elements analogous to aluminium and silicon - whose atomic weight would be betwen 65 and 75. ".

A few years later Mendeleev's prediction begin to came to pass and add substanstially to his professional credential.

In 1923 Hafnium - atomic element 72 is discovered.

Dmitri Mendeleev stayed in St. Petersburg after retiring from the University of St. Petersburg.

He passed away at the age of 72 in 1907.     


72 seems like a very average age to die.
The average heartbeat of an adult at rest is 72 beats per minute.
The amount of water in the body is 72 parts per 100.
A generation in ancient Egypt was 72 years.
......72 strange things ???????????????????????

mining for Hafnium

Hafnium is 72HF and it is atomic element 72 on the periodic table.

Mining for Hafnium is basically mining for zirconium since the two metals almost always are found together. Zirconium was discovered in 1789 by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth who named his discovery after the gemstone zircon which had been around since....forever. The Arabs called the golden yellow stone - zargon.

So mining for zargon is an ancient story but modern zirconium mining is a relatively new story and mining for Hafnium is an even more recent story since Hafnium was only discovered in the 1900's.

Zirconium and Hafnium are pure elements which are seperated from silicates and mineral ores through the process of smelting. The mineral zircon which can be found in ancient beach sand deposits. These beach deposits are a remnant of time and the content comes from metamorphic rocks which themselves crystallized when the earth was cooling - Gneiss and Schist. That isn't a reference. Gneiss and Schist are products of dynamic metamorphism which is a process of cooling in volcanic organic places like earth.

Baddeleyite is a rare oxide mineral called sometimes called Zirconia or ZrO2. Baddeleyite is also a source for Hafnium mining.

" Before the Zircon particles can become part of the beach sand deposits, their host rocks must undergo a series of events that will ultimately liberate the zircon from transportation to a seacoast......the rocks are broken down into smaller fragments and transported downhill  by rainwater and gravity. The rocks further decompose to the point at which the smaller zircon grains are liberated from the enclosing feldspars and quartz.............." Surface Mining, p. 268. ed.2

Hafnium is found wherever ancient beach sand deposits are found. 

Zircon mines and Hafnium mines and the volatile commodity markets

Most mining for Hafnium and Zirconium is done in Africa and Australia. USGS minerals infomation states that for every 50 parts of zircon there is the potential for 1 part Hafnium and Zirconium. That makes zircon a mineral commodity which was selling at 900 dollars a tonne in 2009.

In the early 1970's Zircon commodity contracts were auctioning off at around 180 to 200 US. By the middle of that decade the beach sand mineral had skyrocketed to 800 dollars and retraced to 200 by the end of the decade where it stabilized for a few years. From 1986 to 1993 Zircon buyers and sellers formed a wave to 700 and back to 150. Since then the price has steadily increased but not without some serious volatility in the process.

Zirconium and Hafnium mining is a biproduct of Zircon mining. Zircon is used in ceramic tiling and in all types of production.

Hf is Hafnium

Hf is Hafnium and it is lustrous grey metal that looks like silver.

Hafnium - Periodic Table Element 72

Element 72 was disccovered in 1923 by Coster and von Hevesy.

Hf is atomic number 72 and is a transition metallic element. Hf is highly heat resistant due to a natural attraction to oxygen and nitrogen. Hf also causes electrons to flow freely in space.

Zirconium is the element of choice in production because it as been around longer. Hafnium is very similar to zirconium but it is less abundant and more difficult to seperate from other elements.

178m2HF is an isomer which means that it has a slightly different structure than Hafnium but identical chemical molecules.

72 Hf - Hafnium has a series of isotopes. Isotopes are variations of an element and all isotopes of an element contain the same number of protons. What makes them isotope is the number of neutrons which differs from one isotope to another. Some 72Hf isotopes are stable while others have half-life which means they are radioactive and have a period of decay.

More scientific details of Hf - Hafnium

Uses of Hafnium
  • nuclear reactor rods
  • incadescent lighting
  • gas lamps
  • plasma cutting electrodes
  • added to alloys
  • liquid rocket thruster nozzles
  • microprocessor gate insulators


Mendeleev predicts the existence of an element that is heavier than titanium and zirconium

Moseley predicts element 72.

Urbain claims to have found element 72.

Bohr and naming Hafnium

Controversy over uses of 178m2HF.

Mining for Hafnium

72HF's sibling goes to DARPA

72HF's sibling goes to DARPA is a follow up to The Players which was a look at a controversy brewing over the potentials of the isomer 178m2HF.

How can ancient beach sand become an isomeric bomb ? Well it can't since Zircon which contains 72HF ( Hafnium -  atomic number 72 ) is a humble mineral used mostly in the making of ceramic tiles, insulators and other such stuff that is good for the economy and good for humans.

178m2HF is the little understood sibling of 72HF and while research may prove this sibling to be a very good brother or sister, there is the potential that this sibling could be a sociopsychopath killer.

72HF's sibling goes to DARPA for assessment much as any genial prodigy ends up in the research lab of some scientist who looks to understand them and classify them as good or evil.

178m2HF goes to DARPA.

DARPA is the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and it is customarily the place where the American Department of Defense sends their prodigy's to be assessed. The DoD is headquartered in the Pentagon ( a pentagon is a five sided building with each angle set at 72 degrees ). The Pentagon is a virtual city within a city with a community of military and civilian people where the security of the USA is planned and executed.

The DARPA webpage opens up to a very surreal message.

CREATING and PREVENTING Strategic Surprise

Creating surprise is the scary part of that message. DARPA is responsible for messing with 178m2HF which could very well end up being a Jack in the Box type surprise released at an exawatt level.

DARPA was founded in 1958 to deal with the scientific investigation of prodigy's of biology, medicine, computer science, chemistry, physics, and basically any natural or metaphysical phenom that comes through the infinite influential pipe of time. Who knows....that pipe of time may just some day be discovered to be an interdimensional time travel gate such has one of the most revered prodigy, namely Albert Einstein, once suggested was possible. The controversial Philadelphia Experiment which showcased the morphing of the ship and crew of the USS Eldridge in 1943 was and remains a conspiracy theory which proposes that Einstein was experimenting with time travel.

The DARPA SIER program was a proposal put to Congress in 2004 during the Bush administration. SIER is Stimulated Isomer Energy Release. This was the response.

"Stimulated isomer energy release
"The budget request contained $339.2 million in PE 62702E for tactical technology applied research, including $4.0 million for stimulated isomer energy release.
"The committee is aware that the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) is funding research to investigate the feasibility of stimulating the release of energy stored in nuclear isomers. The committee understands that the DARPA-sponsored research is investigating two of the most difficult technical challenges in this program and that the research is being conducted in the national laboratories, the Department of Energy, the military service laboratories, and other facilities. Given the significant policy issues associated with any eventual use of an isomer weapon and given the inability of distinguished scientists to replicate the reported successful triggering experiment of 1998, the committee believes that the Department of Defense should not be engaged in this research. The proper agency to investigate the feasibility of this technology is the National Nuclear Security Administration and its national laboratory complex. The committee questions the utility of this research in any circumstances and is particularly skeptical of research into nuclear isomer production before triggering is shown to be possible.
"Accordingly, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense to terminate this program, and recommends no funding for the stimulated isomer energy release in PE 62702E, a reduction of $4.0 million." American Institure of Physics
This article from the DangerRoom called Russia's Isomer Bomb, Funded by Your Taxes looks into the potential of other countries experimenting with isomer energy.

The DangerRoom also carries an article that states that maybe DTRA - Defense Threat Research Agency - a branch of the Pentagon might have taken up the investigation of 178m2HF where DARPA left off.

It seems unlikely that the Pentagon would let go so easily of a product that has the potential of changing the way things are done in the future.

We leave at that with this strange things about the number 72 event.

Collaborators in the sibling of 72 HF controversy

Collarborators in the sibling of 72 HF controversy is a follow up to Controversy over uses of 178m2HF.

We were asking who was at the center of this controversy about the develpment of laser technology that could have the potential of releasing exawatt level energy into the atmosphere. It all started out with a look at 72HF or Hafnium which is a sibling of 178m2HF.

Who or what is Texas Collaboration ?

A group with their primary base at the University of Texas in Dallas. In 1999 they release publications with opinions about observations of the isomer 178m2HF and the potential of "triggered" high energy releases.

such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source....The 178m2HF controversy

The argument from the other side of the controversy comes from a group called " APS collaboration ".

Resolution of the controversy over 178m2HF between APS and Texas collaboration is important for two reasons states the source above.

  1. The US Government could be flipping the bill for the production of the isomer
  2. Can the integrity of the scientific process be trusted
I believe Texas Collaboration is warning of the potential of an isomeric 178m2HF Rapid Energy Release bomb while APS is denying that claim. Correct me if I am wrong.

When weaponry is the topic the Pentagon is certainly going to be a player.

The Pentagon is touting prospects, based on hotly disputed experiments, for a novel class of weapons intermediate between chemical high explosives and fission weapons. physicstoday
DARPA is Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. DARPA is a major player in the Texas Collaboration and APS Collaboration controversy over the effecient development and use of 178m2HF.

DARPA and other seekers of the truth of the sibling of 72 on

Controversy over uses of 178m2HF

178m2HF is an isomer of Hafnium or atomic number 72 on the periodic table of elements.

Hafnium is smelted from ancient beach sands that have undergone volcanic metamorphism. (link)

While 72HF is an element 178m2Hf is just a humble isomer

An isomer in chemistry is a chemical that has the same molecular formula as another, but it has a different arrangement of atoms. A similar relationship is that of brother or sister... you can only be a brother or sister to someone else.

The sibling of 72HF is 178m2HF and that sibling may not be humble at all.

Gamma Ray Emissions and Rapid energy releases are a few terms used in the description of a controversy over uses of 178m2HF.

72HF does have some radioactive isotopes but their half life decay window is relatively short compared to the half life of 31 years of 178m2HF isomer. 72HF's sibling has more energy potential in it than any other known isomer with long life. If this energy were released it would be in the form of gamma rays and photons of X-ray. It is believed that any energy explosion from 178m2HF would be a Rapid Energy Release measured in exawatts which operates on an exponential scale with a factor of 10^18.

A terawatt is one trillion watts. A petawatt is a thousand terawatts. Exawatts are 1000 petawatts.

All of these levels of energy have been associated to the production and use of laser technology. The first two are the measurments of current laser technologies and the exawatt is the goal of future generation laser technology - possibly a future very close.

Here's a few comments on the potential of petawatt laser technology that i found on physorg.

Petawatt Lasers could send a lightsail to our nearest star, with 1kg payload, in a few years.

Any idea on what material would be light enough to make the sail -and- withstand that kind of power density?

Anything is possible. But forget about petawatt laser technology and star searching. The controversy over uses of 178m2HF and rapid releases of exawatt energy which could make travelling to the nearest star a moot point for all but a very select few.

Who is at the center of the controversy over uses of 178m2HF ?

The on.

Wednesday, 21 March 2012

number 72 in hockey

There are less than 2 dozen NHL players who were number 72 in hockey.

  1. Luke Adam
    • Buffalo Sabres .
  2. Jamie Arniel
    • Boston Bruins
  3. Matthieu Carle
    • Montreal Canadian 
  4. Jeff Christian
    • Pittsburgh Penguinss
    • Phoenix Coyotes
  5. Erik Cole
    • Montreal Canadians
  6. Jeremy Coliton
    • New York Islanders
  7. Shayne Corson
    • Dallas Stars
  8. Kristopher Foucault
    • Minnessta Wild
  9. Ron Hextall
    • New York Islanders
  10. Pavel Kolarik
    • Boston Bruins
  11. Alex Kolarev
    • Pittsburgh Penguins
  12. Brandon Mashintor
    • San Jose Sharks
  13. Eric Meloche
    • Pittsburgh Penguins
  14. Erik Nikulas
    • Boston Bruins
  15. Peter Schaefer
    • Vancouver Canucks
    • Boston Bruins
  16. Matthieu Schneider
    • New York Islanders
    • Toronto Maple Leafs
  17. Dave Semenko
    • Hartford Whalers
  18. Brad Smith
    • Detroit Red Wings
  19. John Tonelli
    • Chicago Black Hawks
  20. Ben Walter
    • Boston Bruins
People who wore number 72 in Hockey. That was a bit of sport trivia surrounding the number 72. Not much mystery here.

Tuesday, 20 March 2012

Half a Gross

Can you eat 200, 000 dollars in one sitting ?

This story is about half a gross lunch......or six dozen worth ....or 72 capsules of cocaine.

This was not your typical lunch and it is a piece of social trivia that belongs on 72 strange things.

x ray photo released by Brazilian Federal Police
  Back in late 2011 this Irishman goes to Brazil and packs down half a gross of cocaine before trying to board a plane at San Paolo's Congonhas airport. The 20 year old had swallowed 72 bags of "coke" and was trying to get to Lisbon, Portugal and then to Brussels, Belgium.

Security caught up with him and he was arrested. Those pictures are actual x-rays of what 72 cocaine capsules look like inside a stomach.

The cocaine was removed at a hospital. Let's hope the young drug mule still has a stomach since this crime of international drug trafficking could have him eating prison food for 15 years. Street value for that amount of cocaine is roughly 200 thousand dollars US. That breaks down to about 13 thousand dollars per year for time served.

Not half a gross if you have the stomach for it.

72 virgins and religious morality

Faustus, Augustine, religious morality, 72 virgins

72 virgins and religious morality

This story looks into the 72 virgins of starts with this quote which has been completely used out of context with reality since 2002. The 72 virgins story wouldn't be full without comparing a bunch of other religious philosophy.


In August, 2001, the American television channel CBS aired an interview with a Hamas activist Muhammad Abu Wardeh, who recruited terrorists for suicide bombings in Israel. Abu Wardeh was quoted as saying: "I described to him how God would compensate the martyr for sacrificing his life for his land. If you become a martyr, God will give you 70 virgins, 70 wives and everlasting happiness." Wardeh was in fact shortchanging his recruits since the rewards in Paradise for martyrs was 72 virgins. But I am running ahead of things .  link to the article Virgins. What Virgins ?


In the end you make up your own mind about the truth. Typos are free...Enjoy!!!

Prophet Mani
Augustine was born in 354 AD in Souk -Ahras which at the time was a market ( Souk ) town near the ancient city of Hippo Regius. This Souk was located on the shores of the Mediterranean sea and across from the island Sardinia. His father was a pagan. His mother was a Christian. The Souk-Ahras was a combination of both. Augustine was like all other adolescent kids and during his youth he partied with the crowd.  He later confessed to having brought a child into the world?.? Augustine is a smart kid and his mind is riddled with the cause and effect of sin and he seeks a philosophy of life that will make him happy. Like his father, he is not baptized.  He joins up with the Manichean religion which had recently been founded by the Persian Mani who came from the the Seleucid area of Persia. Like other potential prophets, Mani claimed to have had divine revelations telling him to teach the true meaning of Christ. He was only 13 years old when his heavenly twin appeared to him and told him to leave his father's gnostic sect. Some years later Mani travels to India then turns his sails towards Afghanistan where he settles in the Zoroastrian influenced court of Shapur I. It isn't certain that Shapur I, second king of the Second Persian Empire, was a convert to Mani's religion but he did tolerate the preacher's desire to spread the word in Western Iran. Mani dedicates some of his writings to his Persian King patron. A few kings later however, Mani is arrested and and dies in prison. King Bahram I had devoted himself to the Zoroastrian revival  of the reformer Katir and outlawed the teachings of Mani.

Doctor of the Church Augustine
Sandro Botticelli
 Manicheaism claimed that the inspired writings  recognized by the Church of God, the Holy Writs were spreading false beliefs. Mani was looking for evidence of the natural scientific mystery of creation. ( sounds a bit like scientology ). Augustine was impressed by this philosophy. The philosophy of Mani was kind of like a Unified Theory of Religion which professed that all religions of the day could be synthesized into one flavour. That flavour of course was Manicheism. Basically Mani philosophy claimed that all ideas stem from two eternal principles : good and evil, the sun and the moon. The Mani philosophy goes that people and societies are materially fused, attached and attracted, isolated or at war, by good or evil deeds and ideas propogated by the two celestial elements. That is my understanding of it.

Salvation by knowledge was the preacher's message. Unlike the myste
rious Christian faith this doctrine claimed to be able to explain all that exists including the genesis of the universe, the composition of it, and the future of it. To the Christian bishops Mani's religion would have be no more than a Gnostic School and by no means a system of Churches, yet they remained tolerant.

Throughout the middle ages the four Doctors of the Christian Church ( Doctores Ecclesiea ) were Augustine, Gregory the Great, Ambrose, and Jerome. They were given this title for their doctrines on religious philosophy which the church elders claimed to be divinely inspired.

In time Augustine renounced his affiliation to the Mani sect. He had never been ordained a priest of Manecheism and his highest rank was that of "auditor". ( reflections of scientology again ). He states as some reason of leaving that he was anything but free spirited in that circle and that he was often disenchanted, depraved and isolated. " They destroy everything and build up nothing" ....they explain nothing of science nor the knowledge of nature and its laws, nor the movement of the stars...." Wait for Faustus " they proclaim when asked, " he will explain everything to you. ". Augustine does get to meet Faustus but is even less impressed with his choice of religion after.

After nine years in the sect, Augustine bumps into Ambrose while in Milan, Italy. From the moment of this meeting to his full conversion three years passed. It took him this long to shake the spirit of Mani from his soul.

Enter Doctor Faustus.....

Doctor Faustus knows all the secrets of nature and he is our chosen healer, so claimed Mani and his followers which grew in numbers for a thousand years mostly in parts of India, China, Tibet, Mesopotamia and other mid east places.

Doctor Faustus was Faustus of Mileve. He was an ordained Bishop within the Manichean bishopry.

Later on in life Augustine mentions Doctor Faustus in his confessions while he is assessing the merits of morality. On this subject, he claims that the Mani sect had no morals and were bent on materialism. For Augustine it was through his conversion to Christianity that he found true freedom and happiness in philosophy. The Christian church loved his message and in time made him a Saint.

Faustus of Mileve meanwhile....

According to Mani and Doctor Faustus, it is possible to refine and perfect the self through rational application of morality..

Rational is the key word here. Rational is a scientific term where sin and damnation are words given to Christian religion. Sin and damnation are the mystery of Christian religion. The Mani sect preached against such hidden meaning and proclaimed that natural science could explain sin and damnation.

That argument continues to this very day. Science continues to explain the psychology which drives humanity. Science also comes up with all kinds of drugs to control the ill effects of nature. It is a bit like Man (i) and Faust are still playing god with reality which is a truth hidden in the dark matter of the time untime machine.

Faust was reintroduced by Goethe who starts writing about the subject back in 177? and continues to improve his sketches until the 1830's. Faust is introduced through a partially printed book then becomes the main character of a two part tragedy play. In the first part of the play Faust sells his soul to the devil and that is the theme of the play. In the second part of the Faust tragedy Goethe goes looking at how people react to social events and compares mysticism to natural phenomena.  Goethe uses the Faust character to enlighten the relationship between mystery and reality. History in the end is just a recording of the way people react psychologically to events that must be dealt with . Morality is the scale of good and evil but where and who dictates the measure of good and evil and are humans really ever capable of shaping themselves according to principles of morality ? Sin is a dirty word. In a world gone mad sin seems easily quantifiable. Rationalizing sin seems the more scientific appraoch to feeling free.

Am I moralizing ?????

Since this is supposed to be about the number 72 then I guess I should qualify 72 virgins as part of this story of morality and rationalizing social behaviour.

Where can one find 72 vested virgins on this preditor infested planet or in the Islamists holy book or it's traditions ( hadiths ).

We mentioned the Persian Mani. Well actually Mani was born in Babylonian territory but who's going to count to 72 on that detail.

Persia is Iran and Iran is Islamist territory. I am no more an Islamist then I am a good Christian and these are just passing thoughts on the mystery of the number 72 so keep an open mind if you read on.

I know that Persia is the hub of the world's oldest civilization and the culture of Iran deserves credit for many of the great things that are part of our library of knowledge today.

One claim is that Persia literally means " land of the Aryans ". That little piece of knowledge is full of religious mystery in itself. Arius was one of the main reasons why councils held meetings in Niceae ( where Hipparchus was born ). Arius was a priest and a Christian who tried to get the bishops to become his disciples. The bishops would have none of it claiming that they were the disciples of only the highest priest which is the lord himself. In Niceae they decided which books of testimony were considered divinely inspired and Arius's testament failed the test. They also decided how the church would proclaim the mass and the affairs of the church. The Nicean creed is still used in many mass rituals today.

Another claim is that Persia is a derivative of Parsua which was the name of an Indo European tribe.

Yet another claim goes that Perses, son of Andromeda and Perseus, is where the name Persia comes from.

Persia was influenced by the philosophical ideas of the Zoroaster for centuries. Zoroaster is a very mysterious prophet on his own and whether he ever existed is legend.

Some people think that Aryanism is a product of Persia and claim that this inscription is proof of that.

I am Darius, the great king, the king of kings
The king of many countries and many people
The king of this expansive land,
The son of Wishtaspa of Achaemenid,
Persian, the son of a Persian,
'Aryan', from the Aryan race

"From the Darius the Great's Inscription in Naqshe-e-Rostam"

Darius I was King of Persia in about 500 BC. He was a member of the Achaemenid royal family and by legend of the bloodline of Acheamenes. Whether or not Acheamenes really lived is also legend. One such legend goes that Acheamenes was raised by an eagle and becomes chief of the Pasargadea tribe. His mother was an Ethiopian Queen named Andromeda and his father was Perseus, son of Zeus.

Regardless of the true nature of the players in this Faustian reality play the fact remains that Darius I conquers territory by defeating the son of  Cyrus the Great who became Shah ( King ) of the Acheamenid Empire or First Persian Empire after defeating the Median Empire overlords.

Today's Iran is more Islamist that Aryan or Zoroastrian ( I don't think Iran is tolerant on other religions ) and that happened about the same time as the Muslims conquered Persia back in 651 AD. Prophet Mohammad, messenger of God had received his revelation from the archangel Gabriel who in part told him how to restore an uncorrupted monotheistic faith. Prophet Mohammad died in 632 AD.

The Muslims who followed the Islamist Qu'ran brought the religion with them into the territory they had recently conquered. ( Now if you are a Mormon you will definitely not like the fact that Muslims believe their prophet to be the last prophet - such a claim states that Joseph Smith is a fraud and all followers of LDS are slightly bent and likely candidates for conversion - " complete surrender to Him is the only way " ??????. )   Granted the message of the Qu'ran could be interpreted as saying that Prophet Muhammad is to be the last prophet of the Islamist. The list of prophets named in the Qu'ran starts with Adam, then Enoch, Noah,..........Jesus.....and the last prophet is Muhammad.

Interpretation is a little like predicting the future or telling the truth about the past. Everything in both direction is lost in the fog of time.

The Qu'ran is where we find the 72 virgins. Or do we ???

"Verily, for the Muttaqun [righteous], there will be a success (paradise); gardens and grapeyards; and young full-breasted (mature) maidens of equal age; and a full cup (of wine)" (An-Naba 78:31-34)

That is what the Qu'ran says about pure women waiting in heaven for the righteous Islamist who serves Allah while on Earth.

"The least [reward] for the people of Heaven is 80,000 servants and 72 wives, over which stands a dome of pearls, aquamarine and ruby."  Sunan Hadith 2562 of Iman al-Tirmidhi

The idea of 72 virgins in heaven waiting for a Jihad warrior started with this quote

In August, 2001, the American television channel CBS aired an interview with a Hamas activist Muhammad Abu Wardeh, who recruited terrorists for suicide bombings in Israel. Abu Wardeh was quoted as saying: "I described to him how God would compensate the martyr for sacrificing his life for his land. If you become a martyr, God will give you 70 virgins, 70 wives and everlasting happiness." Wardeh was in fact shortchanging his recruits since the rewards in Paradise for martyrs was 72 virgins. But I am running ahead of things .  link to the article Virgins. What Virgins ?  which also states...

"They shall recline on jewelled couches face to face, and there shall wait on them immortal youths with bowls and ewers and a cup of purest wine (that will neither pain their heads nor take away their reason); with fruits of their own choice and flesh of fowls that they relish. And theirs shall be the dark-eyed houris, chaste as hidden pearls: a guerdon for their deeds... We created the houris and made them virgins, loving companions for those on the right hand..."

Here are some places that mention 72 pure companions for those who fight the cause of Allah and his prophet......

Muslims are offered a palace; in it are 72 mansions with 72 homes with 72 sheets on 72 beds with 72 virgins that never lose their virginity. Mohammed said, “The person who participates in (Holy Battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostle, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to paradise (if he is killed).” (Al Bukhari vol. 1:35.) “They [true believers] will sit with bashful, dark-eyed virgins, as chaste as the sheltered eggs of ostriches” (Sura 37:48). This gives us insight into their denial of this life and being rewarded in the next. The promise of heaven to those who die in battle for the cause of Allah is quite a promise. Let us Reason

Monday, 19 March 2012

People associated with the pentagon

pentagon attacked exactly 60 years after groundbreaking in 1941
There are all types of people associated with the pentagon.

Any five sided polygon is considered a pentagon. The word pentagon contains the pente word of the Greek which they used to signify 5. Poly means many. The Greeks used Gonia to mean angle. So a pentagon has five angles.

A regular pentagon has five equal angles of 108 degrees. The points of these angles are set on an order of 5 along a 360 degree circle.

Point 1 is at 0. Point 2 is at 72 degrees. Point 3 is at 144 degrees. Point 4 is at 288 degrees. The number 72 is the common factor of the five points of a regular pentagon where all sides are the same length.

That is kind of interesting. The pentagon belongs to that area of numbers called geometry.

Greek people associated with the pentagon....

Geometry is a another one of those words that the Greeks brought to life when the made earth measurements. Geo being to earth what metry is to measurement. The Greeks were not the first to measure the earth for political reasons or for scientific reasons but the Greeks are the first to have sent records of their knowledge of geometry down the influential tube of history. Since the earliest of times geometry has been used to measure all types of objects both on earth and in the universe.

Babylonian people associated with the pentagon...

The Greek Euclid was a big name in the advancement of geometry. Euclid lived in the 3rd century BC. Another Greek living about 100 years after Euclid was named Hipparchus of Nicaea. Hipparchus was a scientific type who spent a lifetime gaining knowledge of geometry, astronomy, mathematics, astrology and more. Hipparchus had likely studied the numbers systems of the Chaldeans of Babylonia and used is knowledge of the power of 60 numbers system to map the sky. It is believed that Hipparchus figured out the precession of the equinoxes cycle of time that comes to be referred to as the Platonic Year but that is information on this subject died with him. He is also the Greek who introduced trigonometry to the world.

Trig is measurement by triangulation and is a branch of geometry.

Roman people associated with the pentagon...

It is a guess on my part but I suspect that the people who helped Julius Caesar reinvent the old Roman calendar likely knew of the work of Hipparchus. The Julian calendar comes along as a method of stopping the corruption amongst high priests who are the authorities behind the extra days that need to be added to the old Roman calendar in order to keep it keeping time with the equinoxes and the change of seasons.

French people associated with the pentagon...

Most tof the world today operates on a calendar that replaced the Julian calendar. That reformation of the Julian calendar comes in the years when Rene Descartes is living. Rene the Cartesian was also a big numbers guy and comes along in the early 1600's with another branch of geometry. Descartes introduced  " analytical geometry " which is a bridge between algebra and geometry. Algebra meanwhile had been thought up back in about 200 AD by the father of algebra Diophantus who lived in Alenxandria.

Galeleo - father of modern science
In the days of Euclid the numbers guys used what is termed " geometric algebra " which is completely different than algebra and the equations of algebra proposed by Diophantus. Geometric algebra is a relatively new term introduced in hte 1900's and that type of numeration is still used extensively in fields that require intuitive thinking of abstract domain such has are found in quantum mechanics, spacetime relativity, etc....

The pentagon is interesting in that in plays on the factor 72 in five sided equal angles. The precession of the equinoxes is interesting because a full 360 rotation of this zodiac is a process that moves along one degree at a time every 72 years.

Rene Descartes is interesting in that he comes along at a time when the high priests are arguing about what religion should be and who should be in charge of the heavenly agency.

Religious, Polish, and Italian people associated with the pentagon....

A hundred years or so before Descartes the world had witnessed the invention of the printing press and the beginning of mass ( not the church type ) production. Mass ( the church type ) production was the argument that sent heretics to their grave.

Women teaching geometry and the knowledge of Euclid
Copernicus, a Doctor by trade and an avid astromomer by obsession had worked out the heliocentric nature of the universe but wasn't in a hurry to make his theory public. When he did begin to mention his ideas about how the earth was not the center of the Universe it was the Protestants who scourned him for his heretic behaviour. Copernicus was simply restating a theory that Hipparchus likely knew in 300 BC or thereabouts. The Catholics heard about Copernicus's heliocentric cosmology theory in 1533 through Johann Widmannsletter and were at least interested in what the Doctor was proposing.

Copernicus died of stroke related complications and not by the execution order of a witch hunter.

Copernicus the Polock inspired the Italian Galeleo Galilei who improves on the telescope and becomes the father of modern science. His contemporary astronomers did not take to his Copernicanism ideas of heliocentricity and the Catholic church made an about face on their treatment of the subject. The Catholic church put Galeleo under house arrest for the rest of his life. Interestingly the Jesuits were siding with Galeleo and were also distanced from the Holy see. So much for being the " right " hand of the divine law !!!! Right or wrong, when it comes to subjective sometimes you are always wrong even if you are least until nature by it's divine choirs comes to right the objective.

Somehow all people are associated with the pentagon....

70 or 72 disciples sent out by Jesus

Were there 70 or 72 disciples sent out by Jesus ?

We find the information about the sending out of messengers in Luke's gospel under Luke 10:1.

  1. The Wycliffe Bible states - Forsooth after these things, the Lord Jesus ordained also other seventy and two, and sent them by two and two before his face into every city and place
  2. The New International Version states - After this the Lord appointed seventy-two others and sent them two by two ahead of him to every town and place where he was about to go.
  3. New King James version - After these things the Lord appointed seventy others also, and sent them two by two before His face into every city and place where He Himself was about to go.
We are told that they are sent out in pairs but are there 35 pairs or 36 ?

Ezekiel's vision
In a book called Birth Angels which focuses on the 72 angels of the Kabbalah we read " the two plus seventy disciples sent out by Jesus ".

Who are the seventy and who are the two ?

The Kaballah teaches that there are 72 angels who inhabit the nine divine Choirs of the hierarchical tree of life.

If the following can be applied to the Kaballah line above then there is confusion as to what can be considered Angel.  By typical Christian Angel hierachy angels belong to the most common choir and are the lowest divine entities on the ladder of higher spirit.

The Kaballah line above would have more meaning to me if it read " 72 entities or 72 spirits...".

Orders of Angels also known as Angelic Choirs are a common theme in Christian Angel hierarchy. One such hierarchy goes like this.

There are 3 spheres of angels and each sphere has types of angels

  1. Sphere one
    1. Seraphim - choir that sings by the almighty's side
    2. Cherubim - guardians of the tree of life and guardians of the garden of eden
    3. Ophanim - living elders who who occupy the throne of divine justice
  2. Sphere two
    1. Dominions - the bosses of the lower angel choirs
    2. Virtues  - guardian choir that stands behind the ophanim and keep nature and the cosmos in divine order
    3. Powers - this choir is the Authority behind mankind 
  3. Sphere three
    1. Primcipalities (Rulers)  - carry out the orders of the Dominions 
    2. Archangels - Gabriel and Michael are archangels - princes ( Hebrew - sar ) among the lower angels
    3. Angels - messengers to mankind highly connected to living things

Genesis 10 of the old Testament names the seventy nations.

Gustave Dore - Depiction of Satan - Milton's Paradise Lost
 The Hebrew Testament of Naphtali mentions, He.." came down from his highest heavens, and brought down with him seventy ministering angels, Michael at their head. He commanded them to teach the seventy families who sprang from the loin of Noah seventy languages."

I am still not quite sure what to make of this 70 or 72 disciples sent out by Jesus topic.

When I refer it to Luke 10 1 it seems like the disciples are human and not angelic. I could easily speculate that there were 70 followers of Jesus who were chosen to go and spread the word of his coming. As for the two others I can guess that Jesus could be one. The other could be either the archangel Michael or even Satan.

Why Satan ?

Line 17 of Luke 10 might be a clue. " And the seventy turned back with joy, saying, " Sir, the demons are being subjected to us in thy name. ".  And he says back to the seventy, " I was beholding the Adversary, as lightning from the heaven having fallen. "  Then he tells them that nothing will hurt them because he has given to them the authority to thread on the enemy as though  they were serpents or scorpions. ( authority is from the choir of powers ) .

In the last line he tells the 70 that their names were written in heaven ( the powers are also the historians and keepers of records ) and that the spirits are subjected to them or on their side.

The Naphtali testament would completely falsefy my own assessment. But then again I don't think the Naphtali testament and the gospel of Luke have anything in common. Naphtali was the son of Jacob and  Jacob's story is dated to about 600 BC when the Neo Babylonians are preparing to overthrow the Israelites. Jacob reaches out to Laban the Aramaic and ends up an enemy of the man who is also is father in law. Jacob marries both is daughters Leah and Rachel. ( If you are a Mormon you would understand this story to be quite different since Laban ends up being slaughtered by Nephi the son of Lehi as they struggle for the idols Urim and Thurrim and the real records of the Israelite tribes ). In other Christian versions no one knows exactly how Laban dies. All we are told is that Jacob and Rachel raised Naphtali who grows up to form an Israelite tribe.

This somehow is an interpretation of the birth of Naphtali.

The testimony of Naphtali had to be speaking of a completely different order of entities than the gospel of Luke was. The gospel of Luke was written sometime after 33 AD.

Were there 70 or 72 disciples sent out by Jesus ?

Your guess is as good as mine !!!! Seventy nations with seventy languages with seventy human rulers all at the mercy of Jesus and Satan sounds reasonable.

The number 72 is full of mystery. This 72 mystery about disciples and angels is far from resolved in my mind yet I now know a bit more about Luke and about spiritual entities. I remain confused about the reality of the LDS church but the history of the Mormon flavour of Christianity has never been more interesting than it is in our times when a few mere mortals are climbing the ladder of power in America.

Mother always said " don't mix religion with brings out the devil in people ".

But can one really ever separate religion from politics ?????

Interestingly enough Confucius who lived at about the same time as Naphtali and Jacob also had 72 disciples.

Confucius had 72 disciples

Yes, it is said that Confucius had 72 disciples.

As a group these followers of the old Chinese sage came to be known as " the 72 sainted disciples of Confucius ".

I guess to know who these gurus were one has to know a bit about Confucius.


 Confucius was born in the country of Lu in the province of Shang Ping. He was born on June 19, 551BC and he was given the name Kong. With age Kong became a master and earned the reputaton of Kong-Fu-Tse. Both of his parents were passed on by the time he was 23. Kong had married at 19 but divorced around the time of the death of his mother which he later buried in the ways of the ancient. Her name was Yan and the burial ceremony revived the ways of the ancient for many who witnessed it. He was an avid learner and in solitude he meditated on philosophical matters and pursued the knowledge of the ancient masters for the rest of his life . Some of those ancient masters include the legendary Yao and Shun who were amongst the first to civilize the country. His teachings were often moral statements which had the power to reform individual and nation if taken seriously.

At least 72 people took Confucius very seriously for Confucius had 72 disciples.

When did Kong-Fu-Tse become Confucius ?

Society of Jesus Insignia

Jesuit priests like Matteo Ricchi and Adam Schall von Bell were amongst the first brothers of the society of Jesus who went to China. The SJ had been founded in Spain by Ignatius of Loyola back in 1534 at a time when the Catholic Church was confronting Martin Luther who had lit the spirit of the religious Protesters. This was also the age when Botticelli was painting for the church and when a doomsday preacher named Savonarola burns idles of sin in a Bonfire of the Vanities. Botticelli is caught up between paganism and Christianity. Savonarola like Luther is excommunictated. The Jesuits were the right hand military enforcers of the Catholic Church. By 1579 the Society of Jesus brotherhood was in China on a mission to learn the ways of the cultured Chinese and to translate their knowledge for the people of the Western world. These Jesuits Latinized Kong Fu Tse to Confucius.

Someone said that the ancient Chinese saw magic in the number 72. Did they really ?

Interestingly enough Naphtali the son of Jacob also spoke of 72 angels and Jesus sent out 70 or 72 disciples.